UNIT -1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY:
Matter and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of
atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities
and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy,
significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws
of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole
concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and
molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
STATES OF MATTER
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous
Gaseous State: Measurable properties of
gases; Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of
diffusion, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure;
Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas
equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept
of average, root mean square and most probable velocities;
Real gases, deviation from Ideal behavior, compressibility
factor, vander Waals equation, liquefaction of gases,
Properties of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and
surface tension and effect of temperature on them
(qualitative treatment only
Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and
metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids
(elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its applications, Unit
cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp
lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell
parameters, imperfection in solids; electrical, magnetic and
UNIT - 3:
sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron); Thomson
and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature
of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; spectrum
of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its
postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the
electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of
Bohr's model; dual nature of matter, de-Broglie's
relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary
ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of
atom, its important features, ψ and ψ2, concept of atomic
orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of ψ and
ψ2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers
(principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers)
and their significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals,
electron spin and spin quantum number; rules for filling
electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion
principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of
elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely
UNIT - 4:
CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCURE
Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic
and covalent bonds.
ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds;
calculation of lattice enthalpy.
electronegativity, Fajan's rule, dipole moment; Valence
Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of
mechanical approach to covalent bonding:
theory - Its important features, concept of hybridization
involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
- Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals
(bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, mo1ecular
orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic
molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond
idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its
UNIT - 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS
of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, . extensive and
intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
- Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat
capacity, molar heat capacity, Hess's law of constant heat
summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion,
formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition,
hydration, ioniz-ation and solution.
law of thermodynamics;
Spontaneity of processes; ΔS of the universe and ΔG of the
system as criteria for spontaneity, ΔGo (Standard
Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
UNIT- 6: SOLUTIONS
methods for expressing concentration of solution - molality,
molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass
both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law - Ideal
and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure - composition plots
for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of
dilute solutions - relative lowering of vapour pressure,
depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and
osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using
colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van't
Hoff factor and its significance.
UNIT - 7:
equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes:
Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria,
Henry's law, general characterics of equilibrium involving
Equilibria involving chemical processes:
Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and
Kc) and their significance, significance of ΔG and ΔGo
in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium
concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst;
Le- Chatelier’s principle.
Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes,
various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted -
Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid - base
equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization
constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect,
hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of
sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer
UNIT-8 : REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox
reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation
number, balancing of redox reactions.
and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic
solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their
variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its
Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells,
different types of electrodes, electrode potentials
including standard electrode potential, half - cell and cell
reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nemst
equation and its applications; Relationship between cell
potential and Gibbs' energy change; Dry cell and lead
accumulator; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
UNIT-9 : CHEMICAL KINETICS
Rate of a
chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions
concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst;
elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of
reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units,
differential and integral forms of zero and first order
reactions, their characteristics and half - lives, effect of
temperature on rate of reactions - Arrhenius theory,
activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of
bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics,
factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids - Freundlich
and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from
- Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of
solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions,
classification of colloids - lyophilic, lyophobic; multi
molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids
(micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall
effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis,
coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their
CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES-
periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d
and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of
elementsatomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy,
electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and
GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS
occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; steps
involved in the extraction of metals - concentration,
reduction (chemical. and electrolytic methods) and refining
with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and
Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in
the extraction of metals.
UNIT - 13: HYDROGEN
hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation,
properties and uses of hydrogen; physical and chemical
properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation,
reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of
hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a
s - BLOCK
ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
Group - 1 and 2 Elements
introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in
physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous
properties of the first element of each group, diagonal
and properties of some important compounds - sodium
carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium
hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone,
Plaster of Paris and
p - BLOCK
Group - 13 to Group 18 Elements
configuration and general trends in physical and
chemical properties of elements across the periods and down
the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each
study of the
p – block
elements Group - 13
properties and uses of boron and aluminium; structure,
properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron
trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
catenation; Structure, properties and uses of allotropes and
oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites
and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic
forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and
uses of ammonia nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus
halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of
oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and
properties, structures and uses of dioxygen and ozone;
Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties,
structures and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid
(including its industrial preparation); Structures of
oxoacids of sulphur.
properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid;
Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures
of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides
and oxides of xenon.
16: d – and f – BLOCK ELEMENTS
introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and
characteristics, general trends in properties of the first
row transition elements - physical properties, ionization
enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic
behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation,
interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation,
properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7
configuration, oxidation states, chemical
and lanthanoid contraction.
Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
UNIT - 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUND:
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner's theory;
ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC
nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds,
isomerism; Bonding Valence bond approach and basic ideas of
Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties;
importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative
analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Atmospheric, water and soil.
Tropospheric and stratospheric. .
pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur,
hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention;
Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and
and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its
mechanism and effects.
pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical
pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution - Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,.
herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and
to control environmental pollution.
19: PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
- Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential
extraction and chromatography - principles and their
- Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
(basic principles only) - Estimation of carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical
problems in organic quantitative analysis.
20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and
p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional
groups: - C = C - , - C = C - and those containing halogens,
oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, Homologous series; Isomerism -
structural and stereoisomerism.
(Trivial and IUPAC)
- Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and
carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals,
electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond
- Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and
types of organic reactions
- Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general
methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane);
Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition:
addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff's
and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation, and
acidic character; addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and
hydrogen halides; polymerization.
Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity; Mechanism
of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration,
Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive
influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS
methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of
C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions
Uses/environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons
23: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN
methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS
Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols;
mechanism of dehydration.
Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions:
halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer - Tiemann
ALDEHYDE AND KETONES: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to
>C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones;
Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition
reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its
derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff
Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of α - hydrogen,
aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction;
Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
strength and factors affecting it.
24: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN
methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Nomenclature, classification, structure basic character and
identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and
their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
introduction and classification of polymers, general methods
of polymerization - addition and condensation,
copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and
vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on
their monomers and uses - polythene, nylon, polyester and
introduction and importance of biomolecules.
Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides
(glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides of
oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and
polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen).
Elementary Idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, .
polypeptides; proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and
quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation
of proteins, enzymes.
Classification and functions.
constitution of DNA and RNA.
functions of Nucleic acids.
27: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids,
antihistamins - their meaning and common examples. .
Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents - common
detergents, cleansing action.
28: PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY
of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds;
Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl
(alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone),
carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic
compounds: Mohr's salt, potash alum. Organic compounds:
Acetanilide, p-nitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
involved in the titrimetric excercises - Acids bases and the
use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr's
salt vs KMnO4.
principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
Anions – CO32-, S2-,
SO42-, NO2- ,
NO3- , CI - , Br-,