Diversity in Living World:
Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind
is living; Taxonomic categories and aids (Botanical
gardens, herbaria, museums, zoological parks);
Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
Introductory classification of living organisms
(Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system); Major
groups of each kingdom alongwith their salient
features (Monera, including Archaebacteria and
Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia);
Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups
(Algae to Angiosperms);
Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up
to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.
Cell: The Unit of Life ; Structure and Function
Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/Dictyosome,
Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids;
Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella;
Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
Structural differences between prokaryotic and
eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.
cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
Biomolecules – Structure and function of
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and
mechanism of action.
Genetics and Evolution:
Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of
inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance;
Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;
Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of
hemophilia and blood groups in humans.
– its organization and replication; Transcription
and Translation; Gene expression and regulation; DNA
Theories and evidences of evolution, including
Structure and Function – Plants:
Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue
systems in plants;
Anatomy and function of root, stem(including
modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower
(including position and arrangement of different
whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of
fruit; Secondary growth;
Absorption and movement of water (including
diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and
of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration
and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal
Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in
plants including deficiency disorders; Biological
nitrogen fixation mechanism.
Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and
non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Various pathways of
carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting
Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic;
Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system;
Structure and Function - Animals: Tissues;
Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy and
functions of different systems of earthworm,
cockroach and frog.
Human Physiology – Digestive system - organs,
digestion and absorption; Respiratory system –
organs, breathing and exchange and transport of
gases. Body fluids and circulation
– Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of
cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery
Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of
Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints,
muscles, types of movement.
Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral
nervous systems, structure and function of neuron,
reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various
types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone
Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants:
Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual Reproduction - Development of
male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and
agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo,
endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy
Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of growth
regulators and their role in seed dormancy,
germination and movement; Apical dominance;
Senescence; Abscission; Photo- periodism;
Vernalisation; Various types of movements.
Reproduction and Development in Humans:
Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual cycle; Gamete production;
Fertilisation; Implantation; Embryo development;
Pregnancy and parturition; Birth control and
Ecology and Environment:
Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
Ecological levels of organization (organism to
biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population,
Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and
Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological
pyramids; Food chain and Food web; Energy flow;
Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
Ecological adaptations – Structural and
physiological features in plants and animals of
aquatic and desert habitats.
Biodiversity – Meaning, types and conservation
strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and
Environmental Issues – Air and Water Pollution
(sources and major pollutants); Global warming and
Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise
pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of
pollution control (including an idea of
bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of
species (Hot Spots).
Biology and Human Welfare:
Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries;
Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens
of major communicable diseases of humans caused by
fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and helminths,
and their control.
Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
Basic concepts of immunology.
Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop
Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and
free-living nitrogen-fixing microbes, mycorrhizae);
Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol agents
for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;
Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with
special reference to rust and smut of wheat,
bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of
potato, bean mosaic, and root - knot of vegetables.
Bioenergy – Hydrocarbon - rich plants as substitute
of fossil fuels.
Biotechnology and its Applications
Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
Microbial technology in food processing, industrial
production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics),
sewage treatment and energy generation.
Steps in recombinant DNA technology – restriction
enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and other methods,
regeneration of recombinants.
Applications of R-DNA technology. In human health
–Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth
hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy. In
Industry – Production of expensive enzymes, strain
improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In
Agriculture – GM crops by transfer of genes for
nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and
pest-resistance including Bt crops.