**
Introduction and Measurement:**
What
is Physics? Scope and excitement; Physics in
relation to science, society and technology; Need
for measurement of physical quantities, units for
measurement, systems of units-SI: fundamental and
derived units. Dimensions of physical quantities.
Dimensional analysis and its applications. Orders of
magnitude, Accuracy and errors in measurement –
random and instrumental errors, Significant figures
and rounding off the numbers.
Graphs, Trigonometric functions, Concepts of
differentiation and integration.
**
Description of Motion in One Dimension:**
Objects in motion in one dimension, Motion in
straight line, Uniform and non-uniform motion, its
graphical representation and formulae, speed and
velocity, relative velocity, average speed and
instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated
motion, velocity-time graph, position-time graph and
their formulae. Relations for uniformly accelerated
motion with examples. Acceleration in
one-dimensional motion.
**
Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimensions:**
Vectors and scalars quantities, vectors in two and
three dimensions, vector addition and multiplication
by a real number, null-vector and its properties.
Resolution of a vector in a plane, rectangular
components. Scalar and vector products. Motion in
two dimensions, cases of uniform velocity and
uniform acceleration-projectile motion, general
relation among position-velocity-acceleration for
motion in a plane and uniform circular motion.
Motion of objects in three dimensional space
(elementary ideas).
**
Laws of Motion:**
Force and inertia, first law of motion. Momentum,
second law of motion, impulse, examples of different
kinds of forces in nature. Third law of motion,
conservation of momentum, rocket propulsion.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic
frictions, laws of friction, rolling friction,
lubrication, Inertial and non-inertial frames
(elementary ideas).
**
Work, Energy and Power:**
Work
done by a constant force and by a variable force,
unit of work, energy and power. Work Energy
Theorem. Elastic and in-elastic collisions in one
and two dimensions. Notions of potential energy,
conservation of mechanical energy : gravitational
potential energy, and its conversion to kinetic
energy, potential energy of a spring. Conservative
forces. Different forms of energy, mass-energy
equivalence, conservation of energy.
**
Rotational Motion:**
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum
conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of
mass of rigid body, general motion of a rigid body,
nature of rotational motion, rotational motion of a
single particle in two dimensions only, torque,
angular momentum and its geometrical and physical
meaning, conservation of angular momentum, examples
of circular motion (car on a level circular road,
car on banked road, pendulum swinging in a vertical
plane). Moment of inertia, its physical
significance, moment inertia of uniform bodies with
simple geometrical shapes, parallel axis and
perpendicular axis theorem (statements only),
Comparison between translatory (linear) and
rotational motion.
**
Gravitation:**
Acceleration due to gravity, one and two dimensional
motion under gravity. Universal law of gravitation,
inertial and gravitational mass, variations in the
acceleration due to gravity of the earth, statement
of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, orbital
velocity, geostationary satellites, gravitational
potential, gravitational potential energy near the
surface of earth, escape velocity, weightlessness.
**
Heat and Thermodynamics:**
Thermal equilibrium and temperature ( zeroth law of
thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy.
Specific heat, specific heat at constant volume and
constant pressure of ideal gas and relation between
them. First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic
state, equation of state and isothermals,
pressure-temperature phase diagram. Thermodynamic
processes (reversible, irreversible, isothermal,
adiabatic). Carnot cycle, second law of
thermodynamics, efficiency
of heat engines. Entropy. Transfer of heat :
conduction, convection and radiation. Newton’s law
of cooling.
Thermal conductivity. Black body radiation, Wien’s law, Solar
constant and surface temperature of the sun,
Stefan’s law,
**
Oscillations:**
Periodic and oscillatory motions. Simple harmonic
motion (S.H.M.) and its equation of motion.
Oscillations due to a spring, kinetic energy and
potential energy in S.H.M., Simple pendulum,
physical concepts of forced oscillations, resonance
and damped oscillations; Simple examples.
**
Waves:**
Longitudinal and transverse waves and wave motion,
speed of progressive wave. Principle of
superposition of waves; reflection of waves,
harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only),
standing waves. Normal modes and its graphical
representation. Beats, Doppler effect.
**
Electrostatics:**
Frictional electricity, charges and their
conservation, unit of charge, Coulomb’s law,
dielectric constant, electric field, electric field
due to a point charge, electric potential – its
physical meaning, potential due to a di-pole, di-pole
field and behaviour of dipole in a uniform
(2-dimensional) electric field. Flux, Statement of
Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find
electric field due to uniformly charged simple
systems. Conductors and insulators, presence of free
charges and bound charges inside a conductor,
Capacitance (parallel plate), Dielectric material
and its effect on capacitance (concept only),
capacitances in series and parallel, energy of a
capacitor. Van de Graff generator.
**
Current Electricity:**
Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f.,
cells : simple, secondary, chargeable, combinations
of cells in series and parallel. Electric current,
resistance of different materials, temperature
dependence, thermistor, specific resistivity, colour
code for carbon resistors. Ohm’s law and its
limitation. Superconductors (elementary ideas).
Kirchoff’s laws, resistances in series and
parallel, Wheatstone’s bridge, measurement of
resistance. Potentiometer – measurement of e.m.f.
and internal resistance of a cell.
**
Thermal and Chemical Effects of Currents:**
Electric power, heating effects of current and
Joule’s law. Thermoelectricity: Seebeck effect,
measurement of temperature using thermocouple.
Chemical effects and Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
**
Magnetic Effect of Currents:**
Oersted’s observation, Biot-Savart’s law (magnetic
field due to an element of current), magnetic field
due to a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid.
Force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field
(Lorentz force), cyclotron (simple idea), forces and
torques on currents in a magnetic field, forces
between two currents, definition of ampere, moving
coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter. Conversion
of galvanometer into voltmeter/ammeter.
**
Magnetism:**
Bar
magnet (comparison with a solenoid), magnetic lines
of force, torque on a bar magnet in a magnetic
field, earth’s magnetic field as a bar magnet,
tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer. Para,
dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples
(simple idea). Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
**
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents:**
Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s
Law, induced emf, self and mutual inductance.
Alternating current, and voltage, impedance and
reactance; A.C. circuits containing inductance,
capacitance and resistance; phase relationships, and
power in a.c. circuits, L.C oscillations. Electrical
machines and devices (transformer, induction coil,
generator, simple motors, choke and starter), eddy
current.
**
Electromagnetic Waves (Qualitative Treatment):**
Electromagnetic oscillations, brief history of
electromagnetic waves (Maxwell, Hertz, Bose,
Marconi). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio,
micro-waves, infra-red, optical, ultraviolet,
X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about
their uses, propagation of electromagnetic waves in
atmosphere.
**
Ray Optics and Optical Instruments:**
Ray
optics as a limiting case of wave optics. Phenomena
of reflection, refraction, and total internal
reflection. Optical fibre. Curved mirrors, lenses;
mirror and lens formulae. Dispersion by a prism.
Spectrometer. Absorption and emission spectra.
Scattering and formation of rainbow. Telescope
(astronomical), microscope, their magnifications and
resolving powers.
**
Electrons and Photons:**
Discovery of electron, e/m for an electron,
electrical conduction in gases, photoelectric
effect, particle nature of light, Einstein’s
photoelectric equation, photocells. Matter waves –
wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation,
Davison and Germer experiment.
**
Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei:**
Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr model, energy quantization. Hydrogen
spectrum. Composition of nucleus, atomic masses,
binding energy per nucleon of a nucleus, its
variation with mass number, isotopes, size of
nucleus. Radioactivity : properties of α, β and γ
rays. Mass energy relation, nuclear fission and
fusion.
**
Solids and Semiconductor Devices:**
Crystal structure-Unit cell; single, poly and liquid
crystals (concepts only). Energy bands in solids,
difference between conductors, insulators and
semi-conductors using band theory. Intrinsic and
extrinsic semiconductors, p-n junction,
semiconductor diodes, junction transistor, diode as
rectifier, solar cell, photo diode, LED, Zener diode
as a voltage regulator, transistor as an amplifier
and
oscillator. Combination of gates. Elementary ideas
about IC. |