Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations,
Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial
Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test
for convergence; Fourier series.
Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume
integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.
Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear
ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy's and Euler's
equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs-Laplace, heat and wave
Probability and Statistics:
Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables;
Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and
Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations;
integration of trapezoidal and Simpson's rule; single and
multi-step methods for differential equations.
Farm Machinery and Power:
Sources of power on the farm-human,
animal, mechanical, electrical, wind, solar and biomass;
Design and selection of machine elements
- gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets and belts; overload
safety devices used in farm machinery; measurement of force,
torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine
elements. Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool;
hitch systems and hitching of tillage implements; mechanics
of animal traction; functional requirements, principles of
working, construction and operation of manual, animal and
power operated equipment for tillage, sowing, planting,
fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing,
chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport; testing
of agricultural machinery and equipment;
Calculation of performance parameters
–field capacity, efficiency, application rate and losses;
cost analysis of implements and tractors Thermodynamic
principles of I.C. engines; I.C. engine cycles; engine
components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and their
properties; I.C. engine systems - fuel, cooling,
lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust;
selection, operation, maintenance and repair of I.C.
engines; power efficiencies and measurement; calculation of
power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and power losses.
Tractors and power tillers - type, selection, maintenance and repair;
tractor clutches and brakes;
Power transmission systems - gear trains, differential, final drives
and power take-off; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction
Three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations;
mechanical steering and hydraulic control systems used in
tractors; human engineering and safety in tractor design;
tractor tests and performance.
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering:
Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic
pressure and its measurement; hydrostatic forces on plane
and curved surface; continuity equation; Bernoulli's
theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy-
Weisbach and Hazen-Williams equations, Moody's diagram; flow
through orifices and notches; flow in open channels.
Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and
relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and
seepage analysis; shear strength, Mohr's circle of stress,
active and passive earth pressures; stability of slopes.
Hydrological cycle; meteorological parameters and their
measurement, analysis of precipitation data; abstraction
from precipitation; runoff; hydrograph analysis, unit
hydrograph theory and application; stream flow measurement;
flood routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing.
Measurement of distance and area; chain surveying, methods
of traversing; measurement of angles and bearings, plane
table surveying; types of levelling; contouring; instruments
for surveying and levelling; computation of earth work.
Mechanics of soil erosion, soil erosion types; wind and
water erosion; factors affecting erosion; soil loss
estimation; biological and engineering measures to control
erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully
control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways;
earthen dams; water harvesting structures, farm ponds,
watershed management. Soil-water-plant relationship, water
requirement of crops; consumptive use and
evapotranspiration; irrigation scheduling; irrigation
efficiencies; design of irrigation channels; measurement of
soil moisture, irrigation water and infiltration; surface,
sprinkler and drip methods of irrigation; design and
evaluation of irrigation methods. Drainage coefficient;
planning, design and layout of surface and sub-surface
drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control;
irrigation and drainage water quality.
Groundwater occurrence confined and unconfined aquifers,
evaluation of aquifer properties; well
hydraulics; groundwater recharge.
Classification of pumps; pump characteristics; pump
selection and installation.
Agricultural processing and food engineering:
Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and
radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry;
condensation and boiling heat transfer; working principles
of heat exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer;
simultaneous heat and mass transfer in agricultural
processing operations. Material and energy balances in food
processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption
isotherms; centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and
gases; kinetics of microbial death - pasteurization and
sterilization of liquid foods; preservation of food by
cooling and freezing; refrigeration and cold storage basics
and applications; Psychrometry - properties of air-vapour
mixture; concentration and drying of liquid foods -
evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers. Mechanics and
energy requirement in size reduction of granular solids;
particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size
separation by screening; fluidization of granular
solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw and belt conveying; cleaning
and grading; Effectiveness of grain cleaners. Hydrothermal
treatment, drying and milling of cereals, pulses and
oilseeds; Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and
vegetables; By-product utilization from processing
Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; Perishable food
storage, godowns, bins and grain silos.