Atomic structure and periodicity:
Planck’s quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty
principle, quantum mechanical model of hydrogen atom;
electronic configuration of atoms; periodic table and
periodic properties; ionization energy, election affinity,
electronegativity, atomic size.
Structure and bonding:
Ionic and covalent bonding, M.O. and V.B. approaches for
diatomic molecules, VSEPR theory and shape of molecules,
hybridisation, resonance, dipole moment, structure
parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy,
hydrogen bonding, vander Waals interactions. Ionic solids,
ionic radii, lattice energy (Born-Haber Cycle).
s.p. and d Block Elements:
Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali and alkaline earth
metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S, general characteristics of
3d elements, coordination complexes: valence bond and
crystal field theory, color, geometry and magnetic
Colligative properties of solutions, ionic equilibria in
solution, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis
of salts, pH, buffer and their applications in chemical
analysis, equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for
Conductance, Kohlrausch law, Half Cell potentials, emf,
Nernst equation, galvanic cells, thermodynamic aspects and
Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation
energy, zero, first and second order kinetics, catalysis and
elementary enzyme reactions.
First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal
energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff’s equation, heat of reaction,
Hess law, heat of formation, Second law, entropy, free
energy, and work function. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation,
Clausius-Clapeyron equation, free energy change and
equilibrium constant, Troutons rule, Third law of
Basis of Organic Reactions Mechanism:
Elementary treatment of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Hoffmann and
Saytzeff rules, Addition reactions, Markonikoff rule and
Kharash effect, Diels-Alder reaction, aromatic electrophilic
substitution, orientation effect as exemplified by various
functional groups. Identification of functional groups by
Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and
geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers, concept of
Organization of life. Importance of water. Cell structure
and organelles. Structure and function of biomolecules:
Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic
acids. Biochemical separation techniques and
characterization: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity
chromatography, electrophoresis, UV-visible, fluorescence
and Mass spectrometry. Protein structure, folding and
function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A,
Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin. Enzyme kinetics including
its regulation and inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes.
Metabolism and bioenergetics. Generation and utilization of
ATP. Metabolic pathways and their regulation: glycolysis,
TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative
phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid
metabolism. Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds:
nitrogen fixation, amino acids and nucleotides.
Photosynthesis: the Calvin cycle. Biological membranes.
Transport across membranes. Signal transduction; hormones
and neurotransmitters. DNA replication, transcription and
translation. Biochemical regulation of gene expression.
Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site
directed mutagenesis and DNAmicroarray. Immune system.
Active and passive immunity. Complement system. Antibody
structure, function and diversity. Cells of the immune
system: T, B and macrophages. T and B cell activation. Major
histocompatibilty complex. T cell receptor. Immunological
techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and
Advanced techniques in gene expression and analysis: PCR and
RT-PCR, microarray technology, DNA fingerprinting and
recombinant DNA technology; prokaryotic and eukaryotic
expression systems; Vectors: plasmids, phages, cosmids and
Architecture of plant genome; plant tissue culture
techniques; methods of gene transfer into plant cells and
development of transgenic plants; manipulation of phenotypic
traits in plants; plant cell fermentations and production of
secondary metabolites using suspension/immobilized cell
culture; expression of animal protein in plants; genetically
Animal cell metabolism and regulation; cell cycle; primary
cell culture; nutritional requirements for animal cell
culture; techniques for mass culture of animal cell lines;
application of animal cell culture for production of
vaccines, growth hormones; interferons, cytokines and
therapeutic proteins; hybridoma technology and gene
knockout; stem cells and its application in organ synthesis;
gene therapy; transgenic animals and molecular pharming.
Industrial bioprocesses: microbial production of organic
acids, amino acids, proteins, polysaccharides, lipids,
polyhydroxyalkanoates, antibiotics and pharmaceuticals;
methods and applications of immobilization of cells and
enzymes; kinetics of soluble and immobilized enzymes;
biosensors; biofuels; biopesticides; environmental
bioremediation. Microbial growth kinetics; batch, fed-batch
and continuous culture of microbial cells; media for
industrial fermentations; sterilization of air and media,
design and operation of stirred tank, airlift, plug flow,
packed bed, fluidized bed, membrane and hollow fibre
reactors; aeration and agitation in aerobic fermentations;
bioprocess calculations based on material and energy
balance; Down stream processing in industrial biotechnology:
filtration, precipitation, centrifugation, cell
disintegration, solvent extraction, and chromatographic
separations, membrane filtration, aqueous two phase
separation. Bioinformatics; genomics; proteomics and
Systems of classification (non-phylogenetic vs. phylogenetic
- outline), plant groups, molecular systematics.
Plant cell structure, organization, organelles,
cytoskeleton, cell wall and membranes; anatomy of root, stem
and leaves, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny,
structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and
Morphogenesis & Development:
Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm,
pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation,
seed storage proteins, seed dormancy and germination.
Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation;
organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed,
somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant cell
culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.
Physiology and Biochemistry:
Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress
physiology, stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N2
metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration,
Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical
mechanisms involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of
senencensce and aging, biosynthesis, mechanism of action and
physiological effects of plant growth regulators, structure
and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates,
lipids, nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.
Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination,
genetic mapping; extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic
and eukaryotic genome organization, regulation of gene
expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal
aberrations (numerical and structural), transposons.
Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification:
Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis; male
sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic
and gametophytic self incompability, haploidy, triploidy,
somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene
transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid
transformation, transgenic plants and their application in
agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.
A general account of economically and medicinally important
plants- cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber,
sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs
and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen
Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases
of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses,
and their control measures, mechanism(s) of pathogenesis and
resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe
Ecology and Environment:
Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, ecological
succession; food chains and energy flow; vegetation types of
the world, pollution and global warming, speciation and
extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation,
Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant
to the field of microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous
generation; Role of microorganisms in transformation of
organic matter and in the causation of diseases.
Methods in Microbiology:
Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of
sterilization; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment
culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; Light-,
phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.
Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity:
Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic
microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and their
classification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function: Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes,
mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella
and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas
vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum,
Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression
of exponential growth phase; Measurement of growth and
growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous culture;
Effect of environmental factors on growth.
Control of Micro-organisms: Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of
effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.
Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An
overview of metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate
pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate pathway; The
citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic
respiration; Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle;
Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis; Common
regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids;
Regulation of major metabolic pathways.
Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction: Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases;
Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging
infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity;
Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies;
Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune
deficiency; Human diseases caused by
viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.
General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics:
Classification, mode of action and resistance; Antifungal
and antiviral drugs.
Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of
mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic
system: transformation, conjugation, transduction,
recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation
of gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model;
Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli;
Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses;
Retroviruses; Basic concept of microbial genomics.
Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles;
Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants.
Animal diversity, distribution, systematic and
classification of animals, phylogenetic relationships.
Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution,
natural selection, adaptation, speciation.
Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity,
mutations, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage and mapping of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology:
Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication,
transcription and translation; regulation of gene
expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle, glycolysis,
enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.
Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure
and function, cell cycle, cell division, chromosomes and
chromatin structure. Eukaryotic gene organization and
expression (Basic principles of signal transduction).
Animal Anatomy and Physiology:
Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system,
digestive system, the nervous system, the excretory system,
the endocrine system, the reproductive system, the skeletal
Parasitology and Immunology:
Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and
helminthic parasites, the immune response, cellular and
humoral immune response, evolution of the immune system.
Embryonic development, cellular differentiation,
organogenesis, metamorphosis, genetic basis of development,
The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population
dynamics, species diversity, zoogeography, biogeochemical
cycles, conservation biology.
Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality,
instinct, learning and memory, social behaviour across the
animal taxa, communication, pheromones, evolution of animal