PAPER – I
1. Animal Nutrition:
(A) Partitioning of food energy within the animal.
Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – nitrogen balance
and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing
energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy
requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation,
egg, wool, and meat production.
(B) Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy
protein interrelationships. Evaluation of protein quality.
Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein
requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation,
egg, wool and meat production.
Major and trace minerals - Their sources, physiological
functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral
interactions. Role of fat-soluble and water – soluble
vitamins in the body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.
Feed additives – methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes,
antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants,
emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of
growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics – latest
(E) Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and
feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed technology and
feed processing. Anti – nutritional and toxic factors
present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and quality
control. Digestibility trials – direct, indirect and
indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing
(F) Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient
requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves, pregnant,
work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding
milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle.
Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for
meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool
Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter,
grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat
production. Low cost rations for swine.
Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition.
Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production.
Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and
2. Animal Physiology:
(A) Physiology of blood and its circulation,
respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in health and
(B) Blood constituents.-Properties and
functions-blood cell formation-Haemoglobin synthesis and
chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and
properties, coagulation of blood;Haemorrhagic
disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume-Plasma
expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and
their significance in disease diagnosis.
Circulation. - Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart
sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms. Work and efficiency
of heart-effect of ions on heart function-metabolism of
cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart,
effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure
and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse,
vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary and
pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal
fluid- circulation in birds.
Respiration. - Mechanism of respiration, Transport and
exchange of gases –neural control of
respiration-chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
(E) Excretion-Structure and function of
kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal
function-renal regulation of acid-base balance:
physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive
venous congestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands
and their function. Bio-chemical test for urinary
(F) Endocrine glands. -Functional disorders their
symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and
control of secretion- hormonal receptors-classification and
Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal and postnatal growth,
maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors
affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat
Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion-
Current status of hormonal control of mammary development,
milk secretion and milk ejection, Male and Female
reproductive organs, their components and functions.
Digestive organs and their functions.
(I) Environmental Physiology- Physiological
relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation,
environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in
animal behaviour, climatology – various parameters and their
importance. Animal ecology. Physiology of behaviour. Effect
of stress on health and production.
3. Animal Reproduction:
quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination-
Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical
and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors
affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors
affecting semen production and quality, preservation,
composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of
diluted semen. Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep,
goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and time of
insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat
4. Livestock Production and Management:
(A) Commercial Dairy Farming- Comparison of dairy
farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under
mixed farming and as specialized farming, economic dairy
farming. Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land
requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities
in dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of
dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk
production, pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing
Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of
greens throughout the year, feed and fodder requirements of
Dairy Farm. Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls,
heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young
and adult stock; Feeding records.
(B) Commercial meat, egg and wool production-
Development of practical and economic rations for sheep,
goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder,
feeding regimes for young and mature stock. New trends in
enhancing production and management. Capital and land
requirements and socio- economic concept.
(C) Feeding and management of animals under
drought, flood and other natural calamities.
5. Genetics and Animal Breeding:
History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis:
Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics;
Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex
determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters;
Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome aberrations;
Cytoplasmic inheritance. Gene and its structure; DNA as a
genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis;
Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations,
methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate.
(A) Population Genetics applied to Animal
Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; Hardy
Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic
frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; Random drift and
small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding,
methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of
inbreeding, Effective population size; Breeding value,
estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic
deviation; Partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment
correlation and genotype X environment interaction; role of
multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives.
(B) Breeding Systems- Breeds of livestsock and
Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and genetic and
phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and
precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative
merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family
selection; Progeny testing; Methods of selection;
Construction of selection indices and their uses;
Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various
selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated
response; Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading,
cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred
lines for commercial production; Selection for general and
specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold
characters. Sire index.
Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of
extension. Different Methods adopted to educate farmers
under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its
transfer and feedback. Problems and constraints in transfer
of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural
Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene:
(A) Histology and Histological Techniques:
Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E.
staining - Freezing microtomy- Microscopy-Bright field
microscope and electron microscope. Cytology-structure of
cell, organells and inclusions; cell division-cell types-
Tissues and their classification-embryonic and adult
tissues-Comparative histology of organs-Vascular. Nervous,
digestive, respiratory, musculo- skeletal and urogenital
systems- Endocrine glands -Integuments-sense organs.
(B) Embryology – Embryology of vertebrates
with special reference to aves and domestic mammals
gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers- foetal membranes
and placentation-types of placenta in domestic
mammals-Teratology-twins and twinning- organogenesis -germ
layer derivatives- endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal
Bovine Anatomy- Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX-
surface anatomy of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of
infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar,mental and
cornual nerve block. Regional anatomy of paravertebral
nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial,fibular
and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in
epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy
of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic
cavities-comparative features of locomotor apparatus and
their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy
in relation to respiration and flying, digestion and egg
(E) Pharmacology and therapeutic drugs -
Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs acting
on Autonomic nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia
and dissociative anaesthetics. Autacoids. Antimicrobials and
principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of
hormones in therapeutics- chemotherapy of parasitic
infections. Drug and economic concerns in the Edible tissues
of animals- chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity
due to insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins
Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and
habitation - Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil-
Importance of climate in animal health- effect of
environment on animal function and performance-relationship
between industrialization and animal agriculture- animal
housing requirements for specific categories of domestic
animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler
birds- stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal
(A) Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms,
postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infectious
diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses, pigs and
(B) Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis,
treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig and
Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like
impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration,
(E) Diagnosis and treatment of neurological
(F) Principles and methods of immunization of
animals against specific diseases- herd immunity- disease
free zones- ‘zero’ disease concept- chemoprophylaxis.
Anaesthesia- local, regional and general-preanesthetic
medication. Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures
and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomasal displacement-
Caesarian operations. Rumenotomy-Castrations.
Disease investigation techniques.- Materials for laboratory
investigation- Establishment of Animal Health Centers-
Disease free zone-
Veterinary Public Health:
(A) Zoonoses. - Classification, definition, role
of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of
zoonotic diseases- occupational zoonotic diseases.
(B) Epidemiology- Principle, definition of
epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological
measures in the study of diseases and disease control.
Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne
infections. OIE regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary
Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for
improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal
diseases - State and central rules for prevention of animal
and animal product borne diseases- S P C A- Veterolegal
cases- Certificates -Materials and Methods of collection
of samples for veterolegal investigation.
Milk and Milk Products Technology:
(A) Market Milk: Quality, testing and grading of
raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing, distribution,
marketing, defects and their control. Preparation of the
following milks: Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double
toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined
and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks,
cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and
Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks.
Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe
milk and for the milk plant equipment.
(B) Milk Products Technology.- Selection of raw
materials, processing, storing , distributing and marketing
milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa,
Cheese, condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food, Ice
cream and Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter milk,
lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products-
BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality
control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and
operational control. Costing of dairy products.
Meat Hygiene and Technology:
(A) Meat Hygiene.
Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning,
slaughter and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and
designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgment of carcass
meat cuts- grading of carcass meat cuts- duties and
functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.
(ii) Hygienic methods of handling production of
meat- Spoilage of meat and control measures- Post -
slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that
influence them- Quality improvement methods – Adulteration
of meat and detection - Regulatory provisions in Meat trade
(B) Meat Technology.
Physical and chemical characteristics of meat- Meat
emulsions- Methods of preservation of meat- Curing, canning,
irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products, processing
By- products- Slaughter house by- products and their
utilization- Edible and inedible by products- Social and
economic implications of proper utilization of slaughter
house by-products- Organ products for food and
Poultry Products Technology- Chemical composition and
nutritive value of poultry meat, pre - slaughter care and
management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection,
preservation of poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS
composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage.
Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat,
eggs and products. Value added meat products.
(E) Rabbit/Fur Animal farming - Rabbit meat
production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and
recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.