PAPER - I
Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments
Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific
literature, literature, literature in regional languages,
accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history:
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and
mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and
3. Indus Valley Civilization:
date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and
significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures:
Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the
Indus, Development of community life, Settlements,
Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron
5. Aryans and Vedic Period:
Expansions of Aryans in India.
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature;
Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic
period; Political, social and economical life; Significance
of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas:
of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of
urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction
of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha
and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire:
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and
Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity,
Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture;
External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
8 Post - Mauryan Period
(Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy,
coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social
conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and
9. Early State and Society in Eastern India,
Deccan and South India:
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age;
Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds
and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and
culture; Art and architecture.
Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the
Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian
feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and
educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi,
Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
Regional States during Gupta Era:
Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and
Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of
Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement,
Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple
architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity
and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind;
Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas,
Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth
of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of
temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature,
economy and society.
Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and
architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools,
ideas in Science and Mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and
the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
Agrarian economy and urban settlements
Trade and commerce
Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
Condition of women
Indian science and technology
14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and
Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional
cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India,
Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil
literature, literature in the newly developing languages,
Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
15. The Thirteenth Century:
Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions
– factors behind Ghurian success
Economic, social and cultural consequences
Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
16. The Fourteenth Century:
Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion,
agrarian and economic measures
Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures,
bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil
engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate,
foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account
17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth
and Fourteenth Centuries:
Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town
dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under
the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional
languages of North India, literature in the languages of
South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural
forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and
non-agricultural production, trade and commerce
18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century –
Political Developments and Economy:
of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin),
Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
Portuguese Colonial enterprise
Bhakti and Sufi Movements
19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century –
Society and Culture:
Regional cultural specificities
Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara
Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of
Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
Court patronage of art and technology
21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and
Empire and the Zamindars
Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
Nature of the Mughal State
Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and
Population, agricultural production, craft production
Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and
French companies : a trade revolution
Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit
Condition of peasants, condition of women
Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
Persian histories and other literature
Hindi and other religious literature
Provincial architecture and painting
Science and technology
24. The Eighteenth Century:
Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
Maratha fiscal and financial system
Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the
1. European Penetration into India:
European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The
English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle
for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict
between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the
English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
2. British Expansion in India:
Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The
Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
3. Early Structure of the British Raj:
administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control;
The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The
Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing
character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian
4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent
Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement;
Economic impact of the revenue arrangements;
Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian
labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce;
De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain
of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and
communication network including telegraph and postal
services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior;
European business enterprise and its limitations.
5. Social and Cultural Developments:
of indigenous education, its dislocation;
Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of
western education in India; The rise of press, literature
and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular
literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary
activities in India.
6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other
Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra
Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati;
The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow
remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian
renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic
revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
7. Indian Response to British Rule:
movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th
centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol
Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar
(1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion
(1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan
(1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 - Origin, character,
causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the
character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the
peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of
Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress;
The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the
Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the
social composition of early Congress leadership; the
Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905);
The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political
aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary
extremism in India.
Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular
appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the
Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of
the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil
Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil
Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report;
the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant
Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women
and Indian youth and students in Indian politics
(1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of
ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the
Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between
1858 and 1935
strands in the National Movement
Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the
Madras Presidency, Outside India.
The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas
Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist
Party of India, other left parties.
of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha;
Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of
Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and
her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of
States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality;
Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral
politics; the Question of National Language.
Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in
post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
development and political change; Land reforms; the
politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and
environmental policy in post - colonial India; Progress of
16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(a) Major ideas of
Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
(b) Spread of Enlightenment in
(c) Rise of socialist ideas (up to
Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.
17. Origins of Modern Politics:
(a) European States System.
(b) American Revolution and the
(c) French revolution and
(d) American Civil War with
reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
(e) British Democratic Politics,
1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
(a) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on
(b) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany,
(c) Industrialization and Globalization.
19. Nation-State System:
(a) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
(b) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
(c) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence
of nationalities across the world.
Imperialism and Colonialism:
(a) South and South-East Asia
(b) Latin America and South Africa
(d) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
(a) 19th Century European revolutions
(b) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921
(c) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(d) The Chinese Revolution of 1949
22. World Wars:
(a) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal
(b) World War I: Causes and consequences
(c) World War II: Causes and consequence
The World after World War II:
(a) Emergence of two power blocs
(b) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(c) UNO and the global disputes.
Liberation from Colonial Rule:
(a) Latin America-Bolivar
(b) Arab World-Egypt
(c) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
(d) South-East Asia-Vietnam
Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
(a) Factors constraining development: Latin America,
26. Unification of Europe:
(a) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the
(b) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(c) European Union.
(a) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism
and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991
(b) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
(c) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as