PAPER - I
its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable
management and conservation. Physical and social environment
as factors of crop distribution and production. Agro
ecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments.
Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops,
animals and humans. Climate change – International
conventions and global initiatives. Green house effect and
global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis –
Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems
patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country.
Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on
shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping
and farming systems. Organic and Precision farming. Package
of practices for production of important cereals, pulses,
oil seeds, fibers, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.
features and scope of various types of forestry plantations
such as social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests.
Propagation of forest plants. Forest products. Agro forestry
and value addition. Conservation of forest flora and fauna.
characteristics, dissemination and association with various
crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological, and
chemical control of weeds.
physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and
factors of soil formation. Soils of India. Mineral and
organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining
soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other
beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil
fertility, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations,
integrated nutrient management. Biofertilizers. Losses of
nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice
soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Efficient phosphorus and
potassium use. Problem soils and their reclamation. Soil
factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.
conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion
and its management. Dry land agriculture and its problems.
Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rain
efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for
scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off
losses of irrigation water. Rainwater harvesting. Drip and
sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of waterlogged soils, quality
of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil
and water pollution. Irrigation projects in India.
management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm
planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of
different types of farming systems. Marketing management –
strategies for development, market intelligence. Price
fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in
agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and
factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop
extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of
extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of
big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural
labourers. Training programmes for extension workers. Role
of Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s (KVK) in dissemination of
Agricultural technologies. Non Government Organization (NGO)
and self- help group approach for rural development.
PAPER - II
structure, function and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure and
function of genetic material. Laws of heredity. Chromosome
structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over,
and their significance in recombination breeding.
Polyploidy, euploids and aneuploids. Mutations - and their
role in crop improvement. Heritability, sterility and
incompatibility, classification and their application in
crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked,
sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.
plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing
techniques. Origin, evolution and domestication of crop
plants, center of origin, law of homologous series, crop
genetic resources- conservation and utilization. Application
of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants.
Molecular markers and their application in plant
improvement. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and
recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in
plant breeding. Heterosis and its exploitation. Somatic
hybridization. Breeding for disease and pest resistance.
Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role
of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop
improvement. Genetically modified crop plants.