General Knowledge Geography

Mars (Mangal in Hindi)

God of war

  • Diameter 6,779 km
  • Density 3.93 g/cm3
  • Radius 3396.2 km
  • Volume 1.63118×1011km
  • Mass 6.4171×1023kg
  • Revolution period 687 days
  • Gravity 3.71 m/s2
  • Rotation period 1 day 0 hours 37 minutes
  • Distance from the sun 227.9 million km
  • Composition 95.97% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon, 1.89% nitrogen, 0.146 %oxygen, 0.0557% carbon monoxide and 0.0210% water vapours and dust particles.
  • Nickname The Red Planet
  • Colour Orange Red colour because it is covered with iron oxide dust
  • Classified as Terrestrial planet, rocky planet, inner planet, superior planet (planet which is far away from the orbit of the sun that is superior planet).
  • Moons Phobos and Deimos are two moons or natural satellites of mars.
  • Mars has two natural satellites or moons that are small and irregular in shape – Phobos and Deimos. These two moons were discovered in 1877 by American astronomer Asaph Hall at United States Naval Observatory in Washington D.C. Phobos is named after Phobos Greek god of fear and panic who is the sun of Ares (Mars) and twin brother of Deimos. Deimos is named after Deimos, the ancient Greek and personification of dread and terror.
  • Mars is the fourth planet from the sun.
  • It is the second smallest planet in the solar system.
  • It is named by ancient Romans for their god of war because of its reddish colour which was reminiscent of blood.
  • The surface of the mars is orange-red because it is covered in iron (III) oxide give it the nick name “the Red Planet”.
  • It is made up of iron, nickel and sulphur.
  • Galileo Galilei was the first person who see the mars through a telescope and took the accurate observations of the planet in 1610.
  • Olympus Mons is the large and highest mountain and volcano in the entire solar system. It is two and a half times higher than Mt. Everest.
  • India’s first and successful interplanetary mission launched BY ISRO Mars Orbiter Mission informally known as Mangalyaan entered into orbit around the RED Planet on 24th September 2023.