General Knowledge Geography

Mercury (Budh in Hindi)

God of commerce, eloquence and skill

  • Diameter 4,879.4 km
  • Moons or satellite 0
  • Mean radius 2439.7 km
  • Mean density 5.43 g/cm3
  • Distance from sun 6 million km
  • Time to revolve/orbit around the sun in 88 earth days
  • Time to rotates/spins on its axis once in 58.65 earth days 
  • Composition by volume 70%metals and 30% silicate materials
  • Nickname Swift planet
  • Distance from Sun 57.6 million km.
  • Colour dark grey 
  • Also classified as terrestrial planet/rocky planet, inner planet, inferior planet. 
  • Rotates on its axis in an anticlockwise (west to east)
  • Revolve around the Sun in an anticlockwise (west to east)
  • It is a terrestrial/rocky planet because it is made up of rocks.
  • Like Venus, Mercury is also an inferior planet in the solar system because they both orbits close to the  Sun than the Earth.
  • It is one of four inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars) of the solar system. 
  • First planet of our solar system.
  • Smallest planet of our solar system.
  • Closest planet to the sun.
  • The planet has no water and no gases.
  • Because of high temperature life is not possible on Mercury. 
  • Mercury is named after Roman God Mercurius which is a ‘God of commerce and communication’ or ‘The messenger of god.’
  • The surface of Mercury is heavily cratered and its largest crater is ‘Caloris Planitia’.
  • It is of dark grey colour.
  • Because of no atmosphere on planet. During day time, temperature of the surface can reach 430o Celsius and during night time temperature on surface can drop to -180
  • Because of high temperature on Mercury, it almost lost in the glare of the Sun and it is not seen properly from the Earth in spite of its rather short distance from the Earth. Sometimes Mercury can be seen before the sunrise and after the sunset.
  • In 17th Century, The planet was first observed by Galileo Galilei through his telescope. 
  • The first spacecraft to visit Mercury was NASA’s Mariner 10.
  • Mercury planet is often referred to as “The swift planet”.
  • Its orbital period/revolution period around the sun is 88 days which is shortest in the solar system.
  • It rotates/spins on its axis once in 58.65 days.
  • It is 5.25 times as dense as water.
  • It has no protective blanket like ozone around it to prevent us from harmful radiations.