Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) / Harappa /Bronze Age


Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)/ Harappa /Bronze Age in India 

  • The oldest name of Harappa civilization is Indus Valley Civilization.
  • According to archaeologist, Harappa was the first discovered site.
  • This civilization occupied the period between 3000 BC -1500 BCE by carbon-14 dating.
  • John Marshal was the first scholar to use the term Indus Civilization.
  • Nothing was known of the Indus valley Civilization till 1922-23 when Archaeological Department of India carried out excavation in Indus valley civilization wherein ruins of two old cities Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were unearthed.
  • The Indus Valley Civilization was spread over Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, western Uttar Pradesh and Northern Maharashtra.
  • People of Indus valley Civilization know the use gold, silver, copper but not the use of iron.

Town planning:-

  • IVC is known for its urban look.
  • Town planning was divided in two parts Citadel/ Upper part and Lower part. The IVC was divided into two parts:-
    1. Citadel– This part occupied a smaller area. This part mostly situated in west of the city. Rulers of the city lived in citadel part. The area contains public building, Granaries and workshops.
    2. Lower part-The common citizens lived and carried their professional lives in lower part of the city.

Features of town planning:

  • The streets in IVC were wide and ten meters long which was divided into rectangular and square blocks.
  • Burnt bricks of good quality were used for the town. The brick was of identical ratio 1:2:4 in terms of thickness: width: length.
  • The IVC had an excellent drainage system.
  • The houses were often two or ore stories.
  • The houses had tiled bathrooms.
  • Some houses had heir own well.
  • The houses had windows but no window faced the streets.
  • The town planning roughly followed a grid pattern and streets ran from north and cuts at right angles.


  • The IVC was an urban society which was divided into three distinct social groups:Ruled, rich merchants and poor labourers.
  • The people followed diverse professions such as priests, warrior’s peasants, traders and artisans etc.
  • The IVC society appears to be matriarchal in nature.
  • They generally wore garments of cotton, silk and wool.


  • Agriculture was the most important source of subsistence for the IVC/ Harappa’s people.
  • They grew wheat barley horse gram pea melon watermelon sesame dates millets garlic mustard henna rice and grapes.
  • They stored surplus food in granaries as evident found from many places.
  • They ploughed filed with the help of wooden ploughs.

Animal domestication:-

  • The people of IVC/Harappa domesticated animals on a large scale like goat, buffaloes, oxen, bulls, pigs, asses, camels etc.
  • The people of IVC/Harappa were not only horse centered. They were also formal with the elephant and the rhinoceros.
  • The people of this age also consumed milk and curd.
  • Fish eating was common and molluscs were protein rich food for those who lived in the coastal sites of Gujarat.

Industries and Craft:-

  • They showed mastery skills in a variety of arts and crafts.
  • They made beads and ornaments out of shell, carnelian, jasper, crystal steatite.
  • They mould copper, bronze gold and terracotta in innumerable designs and shapes.


  • They were used diverse varieties of pottery for daily use which was well baked and fine in decoration.
  • Black and Red ware pottery with designs was famous.
  • The pottery shaped was like dish-on-stands, S-shaped plates dishes bowls and pots.
  • Potteries were used for storing grain or water and some perforated pots were used for brewing fermented alcoholic beverages.
  • List of Important Indus Valley Civilisation/ Harappa sites in India
  • It is located in Montgomery, west Punjab (now in Pakistan).
  • On  Ravi River
  • Excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921
  • This is first town which is excavated and studied in detail.
Important findings:-

  • Evidence of coffin burial
  • Granaries
  • Important Indus valley civilisation town
Mohenjo Daro
  • Situated in Larkana District of Sind (now in Pakistan)
  • On Indus River
  • Excavated by R. D. Banerjee in 1922 and E. Makay Kashinath Dixit and Sir John Marshall in 1930.
  • Mohenjo-Daro is the Biggest Harappa site.
  • Its literal meaning in Sindhi is “The mound of dead”.
Important finding:-

  • The biggest great bath
  • Great granary
  • Bronze dancing girl
  • Bearded man
  • Terracotta toys
  • Bull seal
  • Pashupati seal
  • Three cylindrical seals of the Mesopotamia
  • A piece of woven cloth
  • Situated in Ahmadabad, district of Gujarat at the head of Gulf of Cambay.
  • On Bhogava and Saraswati river confluence
  • Excavated by S. R. Rao in 1957-1962
  • Still excavation is in process
Important findings:-

  • First evidences of use of rice
  • An artificial dock
  • Shell ornament makers shop
  • Fire altars
  • Granary
  • Dockyard
  • Button seal
  • Painted seals
  • Set of elephant teeth
  • Situated in Sriganganagar district of Rajasthan.
  • On Ghaggar River
  • Excavated by A. Ghosh in 1953.
  • Excavated by B. B. Lal and B. K. Thapar in 1961.
Important finding:-

  •  Fire altars
  •  Baked/burnt bangle factory
  •  Shiva Lingham
  •  Small circular pits containing large urns and accompanied by pottery
  •  Bones of camel
  •  Both citadel and lower town were fortified.
  • Situated in Sindh Pakistan Near Mohenjo Daro
  • On Indus River
  • Excavated by n. G. Mazumdar first in 1931 and E. Makay.
Important findings:-

  • Bead making factory
  • Use of lipstick
  • Black liner
  • Comb
  • Metal workers shop
  • Carts with seated driver
  • Curved bricks used only here
  • In Gujarat
  • On Madar River
  • Excavated by M. S. Vatsa in 1931 and S. R. Rao in 1953-1954
Important findings:-

  • Flakes
  • Yellow and grey color pots
  • Situated in Hissar district of Haryana.
  • On Rangoi River
  • Excavated by R. S. Bist 1973-1974
Important findings:-

  • Evidences of Barley
  • Terracotta figure of plough
  • Situated in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh
  • On Hindon River
  • Excavated by Y. D. Sharma in 1958
Important findings:-

  • Impression of cloth on trough
  •  Granary
Koti Diji ·        Situated in Sindh, Pakistan

·        On Sindh River

·        Excavated by Ghurey in 1853 and Fazal Ahmed in 1955

Important findings:-

  • House made of stone
  •  City destroyed by force
  • Situated in Sindh Pakistan
  • On Sindhu River
  • Excavated by Ghurey in 1835 and Fazal Ahmed in 1955
Important findings:-

  • Actual remains of rhinoceros
  • Trace of Jhangar culture
  • Fire altars
  • In Punjab
  • On Sutlej River
  • Excavated by Y. D. Sharma in 1955-1956
Important findings:-

  • A dog buried with men.
  • Granary
  • Situated in Bhuj of Gujarat
  • Excavated by J. P. Joshi in 1964
Important findings:-

  • Bones of horse
  • Graveyard
  • Situated Baluchistan in Sindh of Pakistan.
  • On Daasht River
  • Excavated by A. Stein and George Dales in 1927
Important findings:-

  • Trade point between Harappa and Babylon to mature phase
  • Ash filled pot
  • Copper axe
  • Earthen bangles and pottery
  • Now known as Karachi port
  • Situated in Kutch district of Gujarat.
  • Excavated by J. P. Joshi in 1967-1968 and Excavation carried out by R. S. Bist in 1990-1991
  • Latest site discovered in India.
Important findings:-

  • Entire city was divided into 3 parts: the citadel, the middle town and the lower town.
  • Bullock  driven by a nude human
  • Number of reservoirs
  • Use of rocks for construction
  • Town planning, grid pattern, drainage system etc.
  • A big stadium- biggest structure


  • Situated in Bhirrana,  Fatehgarh (near Hissar) district of Haryana
  • Excavated by Amrendra Nath 1997-2000
  • Largest site of Indus valley civilization
  • Still excavation is on  progress
Important finding:-

  • Terracotta wheels toys
  • Terracotta Figures
  • Terracotta Pottery


  • It is located in Haryana
Important findings:-

  • Best quality of Barley
  • Ploughshare made up of Terracotta
  • It is located in Haryana
Important finding:-

  • Two crown made of silver


  • Daimabad in Maharashtra is the most populated site of IVC.
  • Mohenjo-Daro is the most urban/ modern site of IVC.
  • Mohenjo- Daro was the biggest city of IVC situated in Larkana district of Sind. The site spreads in 300 acre.
  • Rakhigarhi was the biggest site of IVC situated in Rakhigarhi, Hissar district of Haryana.
  • A piece of woven cloth has been found at Mohenjo-Daro.
  • Evidences of wheat were found at Mehrgarh
  • Evidences of rice were found at
  • Wooden ploughs have been discovered at Kalibangan.
  • Terracotta model of plough have been found at Banawali and Bahawalpur.
  • Bead making shops have been excavated at Chanhudaro and Lothal
  • Stone sculpture of bearded man probably the bust of a priest discovered at Mohenjo-Daro
  • The Harappa civilisation was the earliest known civilisation to produce cotton. The cotton was known as ‘Sindon’
  • Spindles and needles at many sites attest to the practice of spinning and weaving among Harappa