Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)/ Harappa /Bronze Age in India
- The oldest name of Harappa civilization is Indus Valley Civilization.
- According to archaeologist, Harappa was the first discovered site.
- This civilization occupied the period between 3000 BC -1500 BCE by carbon-14 dating.
- John Marshal was the first scholar to use the term Indus Civilization.
- Nothing was known of the Indus valley Civilization till 1922-23 when Archaeological Department of India carried out excavation in Indus valley civilization wherein ruins of two old cities Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were unearthed.
- The Indus Valley Civilization was spread over Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, western Uttar Pradesh and Northern Maharashtra.
- People of Indus valley Civilization know the use gold, silver, copper but not the use of iron.
- IVC is known for its urban look.
- Town planning was divided in two parts Citadel/ Upper part and Lower part. The IVC was divided into two parts:-
- Citadel– This part occupied a smaller area. This part mostly situated in west of the city. Rulers of the city lived in citadel part. The area contains public building, Granaries and workshops.
- Lower part-The common citizens lived and carried their professional lives in lower part of the city.
Features of town planning:
- The streets in IVC were wide and ten meters long which was divided into rectangular and square blocks.
- Burnt bricks of good quality were used for the town. The brick was of identical ratio 1:2:4 in terms of thickness: width: length.
- The IVC had an excellent drainage system.
- The houses were often two or ore stories.
- The houses had tiled bathrooms.
- Some houses had heir own well.
- The houses had windows but no window faced the streets.
- The town planning roughly followed a grid pattern and streets ran from north and cuts at right angles.
- The IVC was an urban society which was divided into three distinct social groups:Ruled, rich merchants and poor labourers.
- The people followed diverse professions such as priests, warrior’s peasants, traders and artisans etc.
- The IVC society appears to be matriarchal in nature.
- They generally wore garments of cotton, silk and wool.
- Agriculture was the most important source of subsistence for the IVC/ Harappa’s people.
- They grew wheat barley horse gram pea melon watermelon sesame dates millets garlic mustard henna rice and grapes.
- They stored surplus food in granaries as evident found from many places.
- They ploughed filed with the help of wooden ploughs.
- The people of IVC/Harappa domesticated animals on a large scale like goat, buffaloes, oxen, bulls, pigs, asses, camels etc.
- The people of IVC/Harappa were not only horse centered. They were also formal with the elephant and the rhinoceros.
- The people of this age also consumed milk and curd.
- Fish eating was common and molluscs were protein rich food for those who lived in the coastal sites of Gujarat.
Industries and Craft:-
- They showed mastery skills in a variety of arts and crafts.
- They made beads and ornaments out of shell, carnelian, jasper, crystal steatite.
- They mould copper, bronze gold and terracotta in innumerable designs and shapes.
- They were used diverse varieties of pottery for daily use which was well baked and fine in decoration.
- Black and Red ware pottery with designs was famous.
- The pottery shaped was like dish-on-stands, S-shaped plates dishes bowls and pots.
- Potteries were used for storing grain or water and some perforated pots were used for brewing fermented alcoholic beverages.
- List of Important Indus Valley Civilisation/ Harappa sites in India
|Koti Diji||· Situated in Sindh, Pakistan
· On Sindh River
· Excavated by Ghurey in 1853 and Fazal Ahmed in 1955
- Daimabad in Maharashtra is the most populated site of IVC.
- Mohenjo-Daro is the most urban/ modern site of IVC.
- Mohenjo- Daro was the biggest city of IVC situated in Larkana district of Sind. The site spreads in 300 acre.
- Rakhigarhi was the biggest site of IVC situated in Rakhigarhi, Hissar district of Haryana.
- A piece of woven cloth has been found at Mohenjo-Daro.
- Evidences of wheat were found at Mehrgarh
- Evidences of rice were found at
- Wooden ploughs have been discovered at Kalibangan.
- Terracotta model of plough have been found at Banawali and Bahawalpur.
- Bead making shops have been excavated at Chanhudaro and Lothal
- Stone sculpture of bearded man probably the bust of a priest discovered at Mohenjo-Daro
- The Harappa civilisation was the earliest known civilisation to produce cotton. The cotton was known as ‘Sindon’
- Spindles and needles at many sites attest to the practice of spinning and weaving among Harappa