Neolithic age or New Stone Age
- Neolithic age is a food producing age.
- The Neolithic Phase is also known as New Stone Age.
- In northern India, the Neolithic age emerged around c.8000- 6000 BCE.
- In some parts of southern and eastern India Neolithic age emerged around 1000 BCE.
- Subsistence of this age is agriculture, livestock rearing complemented with hunting and gathering.
- V. Gordon Childe termed the Neolithic age as Neolithic Revolution.
- This is the phase of important changes in man’s socio economic life.
- Sharp and polished Neolithic tools are used in this phase to cultivate the soil and grew fruits and corn like raagi and horse gram.
- The people in Neolithic phase started domesticating of cattle, sheep and goat.
- The people started innovation in the production of stone tools such as polished, pecked and ground stone tools.
- Other objects are also found from the Neolithic sites such as needles, scrapers, borers, pendants, bangles, and earrings.
- The people of Neolithic site led a more settled life. They started living in rectangular and circular houses made of mud and reed.
- They knew how to make boats and could spin cotton, wool and weave cloth.
- The division of labour was based on sex and age.
- They use the complex and developed language.
- In Burzahom site – a special of rectangular chopper and domestic dogs buried with their masters in graves.
- In Maski, Brahmagiri and Piklihal sites – Proof of cattle herding are found from these sites.
- In Gufkaral of Jammu and Kashmir – pit dwelling and graveyards located within household.
- Earliest evidences of wheat cultivation are found from Mehrgarh (present day Pakistan)
- Earliest evidences of Rice cultivation are found from Koldihwa.
- Earliest evidences of use of pottery found from Chopan Mando.
- Important Neolithic sites:
|Name of Site||Name of state|
|1. Burzahom||In Jammu and Kashmir|
|2. Gufkral||In Jammu and Kashmir|
|3. Maski, Piklihal, Takkalakota and Brahmagiri||In Karnataka|
|4. Budihal||In Karnataka|
|5. Paiyampalli||In Tami Nadu|
|6. Koldihwa and Mahagar||In South of Allahabad|
|7. Mehrgarh||In Breadbasket of Baluchistan, Province of Pakistan|
|8. Chopani||Mando in Belan valley|
|9. Koldihwa||In BellanValley|
|10. Chirand||In Bihar|
|11. Utnur, Nagarjundakonda, Budihal,||In Andhra Pradesh|
|12. Amri, Kot, Diji||In Sind of Punjab (present day Pakistan)|
|13. Garo Hills||In Meghalaya|
|14. Saraikhola||Near Taxia on Potwar Plateau|