Chalcolithic Age or Copper Stone Age


Chalcolithic Age or Copper Stone Age

  • Chalcolithic age is also known as copper-stone age
  • The phase was emerged around 3000-500 BCE.
  • The term Chalco-lithic is a combination of two Greek words ‘Chalco’ means- copper and ‘Lithic’ means- stone thus the meaning is Copper Stone Age.
  • The copper was first used in 5000 BCE and later it was mixed with other metals such as tin or zinc to make a new metal or alloy called bronze. In course of time the people had familiar with the use of gold, silver and iron.
  • In Chalcolithic phase people subsisted on agriculture and cattle rearing besides practising hunting, gathering and fishing.
  • The people in this phase largely produce wheat as staple food and rice, bajra, pulses such as lentils, black gram, green gram and grass pea.
  • They practised slash and burn cultivation or Jhum cultivation.
  • The people domesticated cows, sheep, goat, pigs and buffaloes.
  • The black and red pottery and ochre coloured pottery were popular potteries in this phase.
  • In Chalcolithic phase people were expert coppersmith. They knew the work of copper smelting and were good in copper stone work.
  • Chalcolithic people were found of Ornaments and decoration made up of shell, bone and beads of semi precious stone and carried finely worked combs in their hair.
  • The houses in Chalcolithic-era villages were small and made up of mud walls and thatched roofs. The houses were rectangular and circular in shape.
  • Chalcolithic settlements are mainly found in the region of south eastern Rajasthan, western Madhya Pradesh and western Maharashtra as well as in parts of southern eastern India.
  • Large mud houses with circular pit house and ovens had been found at Songaon, Inamgaon, and Nashik.
  • Spindle whorls and Chalcolithic Ceramics were found at Malwa site in Maharashtra.


Major Chalcolithic Sites:

1. Ahar with Banas culture Near Udaipurand Gilund


2. Kayatha with Kayataha culture Near Chambal in Madhya Pradesh


3. Nevadatoli with Malwa culture In Western Madhya Pradesh


4. Inamgaon and Chandoli with   Jowre culture In Maharashtra




Other important sites from Chalcolithic Phase:

1. Ahar In Banas valley, Rajasthan


2. Gilund In Banas valley, Rajsthan


3. Malwa In Madhya Pradesh


4. Kayatha In Madhya Pradesh


5. Eran In Madhya Pradesh


6. Daimabad In Godavari valley


7 Nevasa In Maharashtra


8. Sonagaon In Maharashtra


9. Inamgaon In Maharashtra


10 Nashik In Maharashtra


11. Chirand In Bihar


12. Senuar In Bihar


13. Sonpur In Bihar


14. Mahishdal In West Bengal